Demands and Capacities Model based treatment for young children who stutter


The RESTART trial (De Sonneville-Koedoot  et al, 2015) showed that RESTART-DCM based treatment and the Lidcombe Program for preschool children who stutter resulted in comparable outcomes  at 18 months post randomisation. Therefore, parents can be offered a choice between these different treatments, supported by randomised trial evidence. With their choice they will be able to match their personal vision and/or circumstances. This can result in a greater chance of adherence to treatment and a better outcome. Please view

de Sonneville-Koedoot C, Stolk E, Rietveld T, Franken MC. (2015). Direct versus Indirect Treatment for Preschool Children who Stutter: The RESTART Randomized Trial. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0133758. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133758 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133758

Within the scope of this research project ‘Cost-effectiveness of the Demands and Capacities Model (DCM) based treatment compared to the Lidcombe programme’, generally known as the RESTART-study, a treatment protocol was developed in 2007 based on the DCM treatment model. Almost 15 years later, this protocol was ripe for revision. In 2021 the description of the Method has been improved and updated.  The revised Method can be accessed via the download button on this page.

The RESTART-DCM based treatment is a structured, indirect approach. We have characterized it as an indirect approach because it is directed at motor, linguistic, emotional and cognitive factors, which appear relevant for the frequency and severity of the individual child. It is not a direct approach such as the Lidcombe Program, a treatment program which teaches parent to use contingencies to reinforce fluent speech and decrease stuttered speech. Some colleagues consider RESTART-DCM partly direct, because we also work with the child, not only with (the) parent(s).

Treatment for children who stutter

By the late eighties, the Demands and Capacities Model (DCM) approach had emerged as the standard treatment in the Netherlands for young children who stutter. The exact procedure followed however varied extensively. In some cases, parents were only given advice (e.g. to speak to their child more slowly, while in other cases, speech therapists (fluency experts) gave, instead of advice, training to parents to achieve actual behavioural change. Some focused solely on reducing ‘demands’, while others also worked on reinforcing the ‘capacities’ of the child.

For purpose of a similar treatment approach during the study, the ZonMW project Cost Effectiveness of the Demands and Capacities Model based treatment compared to the Lidcombe Programme of early stuttering intervention: Randomised trial,  the RESTART DCM Method manual was developed. In the final stage of the project, it was decided to make the protocol generally accessible. In 2021 this protocol was thoroughly revised. For access to the manual use the download button on this page.


Demands and Capacities Model workshops in English


Since a description of the Method is not a substitute for a hands-on training in skills required to work together with parents on the defined treatment goals, workshops have been developed. These (highly interactive) workshops are designed for speech and language pathologists who want to practice delivering the indirect RESTART-DCM treatment. RESTART-DCM offers basic and advanced workshops and refresher days.  Speech therapists who have attended a workshop have access to extra materials on the private part of the RESTART-DCM website

Learning outcome of the basic workshop RESTART DCM

A workshop can be completed in different ways. We offer a 2 or 3 day workshop, online  or face to face.  The workshop can also be given in 4 modules online. This 4 modules workshop is given in blocks of 3 hours. The learning outcomes are similar except that with a 2 day workshop, the outcome of module 4 will be omitted.

Module 1: This 3-hour webinar provides a general introduction to the RESTART-DCM approach. In this interactive lecture, the background, the research base and a global overview of the treatment method will be presented.

Module 2: After Module 2 participants will be able to describe the rationale of the DCM-approach and DCM multifactorial assessment. They will have practiced  specific elements of the assessment with a video assessment,  selecting relevant demands to target in treatment,  conducting a parent-clinician conference cf. Restart-DCM approach and will have practiced treatment skills regarding reducing motoric and linguistic Demands of the child and the  environment.

Module 3: After Module 3 participants will have practiced treatment skills regarding reducing emotional and cognitive Demands of the child and the environment and increasing motoric , linguistic , emotional and cognitive Capacities. Closing this module, participants are invited to start using the Restart-DCM approach. This will also be possible when they will not have young stuttering children in their caseload, at the time.

Module 4: Before the start of Module 4, participants are invited to submit any questions that may have about using the Restart-DCM approach and they are expected to submit a (short) case study applying the approach. During Module 4, participants will practice applying the Restart-DCM approach in relevant aspects of the submitted case studies, and they will participate in ‘trouble shooting’ related to the questions asked.

Information Online Workshop 2024

RESTART-DCM organizes an international 4 Modules Workshop online at the following dates: Module 1 April 15, Module 2 April 29-30 and May 1, Module 3 June 10-11-12 and Module 4 September 9-10-11 2024.  Participants who are outside the Central Europe time zone will be able to join us. Working hours will be 16 h – 19 h CET (Amsterdam time zone) suitable in terms of time, for participants from the American continent. The workshop will take place when the required minimum of participants is reached. Registration will remain open until April 1th. When you want to register please use our contact form at the bottom of this page. For our cancellation policy click here. For an overview of all information about the workshop use the download button on this page. The language of instruction will be English.

Marie-Christine Franken
Ellen Laroes

e-mail: info@restartdcm.org or use our contact form.

Information on more Workshops 2024

More RESTART-DCM workshops in a 4 Modules format online will be organized at the request of a specific group.

For substantive information RESTART-DCM please use our contact form

Video coaching

Participants of the workshop can, after finishing the workshop, upload a video in which they show certain parts of their diagnostics and/or parts of a therapy session for supervision purposes. They receive feedback, possible alternatives and suggestions and focus points for therapy from RESTART DCM trainers.

 More information & booking

For more information about RESTART DCM and for booking a workshop face to face or online in your country, you can mail

Marie-Christene Franken
Ellen Laroes

e-mail: info@restartdcm.org or use the contact form at the bottom of this page.

Workshop ONLINE  or face to face at your own venue.

Every year, an international workshop is organized by RESTART-DCM in which English is the language of instruction. This workshop will again be given online in 2024. Times are suitable for participants outside the Central Europe Time zone (CET). Further information available on this page.

Another possibility is that the workshop is given abroad at the request of a group of speech and language pathologists. In that case the organization is done by the hosting party in close consultation with the RESTART DCM trainers. Please use the contact form at the bottom of this page if you are interested in the possibility of hosting a workshop in your own country or hosting online. The RESTART trainers are Marie-Christine Franken, Ellen Laroes and Femke de Smit.


Marie-Christine Franken graduated as a linguist (University of Nijmegen, 1985), speech-language therapist (Hogeschool Nijmegen, 1989), and qualified as a Fluency Expert (1991). Her PhD (University of Nijmegen, 1997) addressed evaluation of stuttering therapy. She has worked for more than 25 years combining clinical work, research and teaching. Currently, she is the principal pediatric speech-language researcher and clinical linguist – stuttering therapist expert at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and since 2015 a trainer of the RESTART DCM approach for clinicians.

Ellen Laroes graduated as a speech-language therapist (Hogeschool Heerlen, 1985) and qualified as a Stuttering Therapist (1986). She is registered in the European register for stuttering therapists (EFS). Ellen works in her private practice specialized in stuttering therapy and is a former teacher of Fluency Disorders at Zuyd Hogeschool, University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen. She is connected to the education committee of the Dutch Association for Stuttering Therapy (NVST) and mentor for the ECSF. Since the eighties, she has been working with the Demands and Capacities Model based treatment and since 2000 with the Lidcombe Program as well. She was one of the participating therapists in the RESTART trial and since 2015 a trainer of the RESTART DCM approach for clinicians.

Femke de Smit graduated as a speech-language therapist (Hanzehogeschool Groningen, 2008) and qualified as a Stuttering Therapist (ECSF, 2011). She is registered in the European register for stuttering therapists (EFS). Femke is co-owner of a private practice for speech language pathology and has established the specialization in stuttering within this organisation. She is a member of the Dutch Association for Stuttering Therapy (NVST), mentor for the ECSF and since 2021 a trainer of the RESTART DCM approach for clinicians.

RESTART-DCM Information on the 2024 workshop
Date Module 1: April 15

Module 2: April 29-30, May 1

Module 3: June 10-11-12

Module 4: September 9-10-11

Time 16:00 – 19:00 h (Amsterdam time)
Location Online
Trainers Marie-Christine Franken PhD, SLP, EFS recognized  Fluency Expert, clinical researcher, Erasmus University Medical Centre,  Sophia Children’s hospital,  Rotterdam (NL).

Ellen Laroes, SLP, EFS recognized  Fluency Expert, private practice in Brunssum (NL);  former   lecturer Fluency Disorders at Zuyd Hogeschool Heerlen

Cost € 695,–  (€ 85,– for Module 1 only)
Target group speech and language pathologists treating (or aiming to treat) young children who stutter using  a multifactorial, structured, indirect treatment approach
Study load 30 h online contact hours, 5 hours to thoroughly read the RESTART-DCM Method, 4 hours to complete a practical assignment between Module 3 and 4.
Group size maximum of 24
NB with < 14 participants, only one teacher (instead of 2) will present module 1, 2 and 3. In case < 12 participants, the workshop will be  rescheduled.
Certification certificate of participation (30 h) and completion of the practical assignment (4 h)
Contact information info@restartdcm.org. For registration please use the contact form at the bottom of this page

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